Goal 1: Children engage in a variety of physical activities
- Try new activities that require physical movement, such as climbing on a chair, without adult assistance.
- Participate actively in games, dance, outdoor play, and other forms of exercise.
- Participate in playful and careful rough and tumble with close family or friends.
- Begin to participate in active games such as hide and seek and tag.
- Encourage children to play together and avoid interrupting play.
- Play a variety of active games with toddlers (tag or a simple and safe obstacle course).
- Provide a variety of materials and toys, changing them as children get older and more capable.
- Limit child’s screen time (watching movies, cartoons, playing computer games) to no more than one hour of quality programming each day. Adults should watch and discuss programing with the child.
- Move to music and sing songs with child.
Goal 2: Children demonstrate strength and coordination of gross motor skills
- Primarily walk heel to toe, not tip toe.
- Carry toys or objects while walking.
- Walk and run, changing both speed and direction; avoid obstacles.
- Walk backwards.
- Climb in and out of bed or onto a steady adult chair.
- Enjoy pounding objects (hammers peg with accuracy).
- Kick and throw a ball, but with little control of direction or speed.
- Jump in place.
- Balance on one foot briefly.
- Bend over easily at the waist, without falling.
- Walk in a straight line.
- Walk up and down stairs, not alternating feet, without assistance.
- Swing a small stick, bat or paddle.
- Enjoy riding toys they can move by pushing their feet on the ground.
- Provide space and opportunities indoors to encourage toddlers to run, throw, jump, kick, and climb.
- Play outdoors with toddlers every day except in extreme weather.
- Provide a variety of materials and equipment scaled to size of the children (riding toys, low climbing structures).
- Provide opportunities for child to try different body positions (bending, twisting).
- Use music to encourage movement through song games and dance.
Goal 3: Children demonstrate stamina and energy in daily activities
- Participate actively in games, outdoor play, and other forms of physical movement.
- Run spontaneously across the room or yard.
- Engage in unstructured physical activities for at least 60 minutes and up to several hours each day.
- Increase physical (aerobic) activity with age to 15 minutes at a time, for at least 30 minutes each day.
- Sleep well, awakening rested and ready for daily activities.
- Ride trikes or toys by pushing themselves along with their feet on the ground.
- Think of ways to encourage activity in daily tasks – let them “help” sweep, put away groceries, fold laundry, check the mail.
- Engage in at least an hour of physical activity together each day.
- Offer freedom of movement for much of the day (not in car seat, high chair or crib).
- Provide riding toys they can push with their feet on the ground. Provide wagons.
- Provide child-sized equipment, musical instruments, active follow-along songs and basic rhythms.
- Ensure daily calm and rest periods or nap times.
- Give objects toddlers can dump and fill and containers they can use to carry objects.
- Encourage sustained play, without interruption.
- Limit screen time (watching cartoons, movies, playing computer games) to no more than 1 hour of quality children’s programming, with adult watching and talking about the content.
- Take daily short walks.
Goal 4: Children demonstrate strength and coordination of fine motor skills
- Turn book pages one page at a time, most of the time.
- Scribble with crayons and begins to imitate marks (a circle), uses a paintbrush.
- Fold blanket, cloth diaper, or paper, with assistance.
- Pour liquid from small pitcher or cup.
- Attempt to stack small wooden blocks into a tower 4-6 blocks high.
- Open doors, with assistance, by turning and pulling doorknobs.
- Use spoons and forks (sometimes) appropriately.
- Work simple “insert” puzzles (completes simple puzzle, uses shape sorter box).
- String large beads.
- Use crayons, chalk and child markers with child.
- Provide experiences that support the use of hands in many different positions (painting at an upright easel).
- Provide materials such as play dough or squishy foam toys to squeeze.
- Engage child in activities that promote moving fingers individually (finger plays, typing on a toy keyboard, making music, using a remote control).
- Engage child in playing with and stacking blocks and/or small household objects.
- Help child learn to crank a jack-in-the-box or a wind-up toy or music box.
- Show how fine motor skills are used in your daily life – making a grocery list, knitting,
repairing a net and cooking.
Goal 5: Children use their senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch to guide and integrate their learning and interactions (sensorimotor skills)
- Respond to music with body movements.
- Imitate animal sounds and movements.
- Enjoy sensory activities such as playing in the tub or making mud pies.
- Eat food with a variety of textures.
- Explore and gather materials of different textures (rocks, sticks, shells, leaves).
- Provide physical experiences that integrate child’s movements with all of the senses (shadow play, painting with feet, playground equipment).
- Provide a variety of sounds in the environment: some are soft, some louder, some quiet.
- Model movements and invite child to participate (dance or drum together).
- Provide sensory materials such as water, snow, mud, or sand for children to explore.
- Avoid sensory confusion with scented items that are not edible (scented markers, scented play dough).
- Provide objects toddlers can chew.
- Sing familiar songs, especially ones where the child can make choices such as “Old MacDonald”.
- Observe and participate in cultural events and activities such as food, dances, games and stories.
- Provide textures from nature such as animal skin and horns/antlers, bark, flowers.
Goal 6: Children practice health skills and routines
- Use tissue to wipe nose, with assistance.
- Indicate wet or soiled diaper by pointing, vocalizing, or pulling at diaper when prompted.
- Wash and dry hands at appropriate times, with minimal assistance (after diapering/toileting, before meals, after blowing nose).
- Drink from an open cup independently.
- Communicate with caregiver when he/she is not feeling well.
- Wean from pacifier (if used).
- Start brushing own hair with assistance.
- Drink water from a cup before bed; no longer uses a bottle.
- Cooperate and assist caregiver with tooth brushing.
- Feed self with spoon.
- Help put on their shoes and socks.
- Show interest in toilet training and can use toilet regularly by 36 months, with assistance.
- Participate in sleeping routines such as getting and arranging his/her bedtime comfort items.
- Clean up after a meal with little assistance.
- Model and practice proper hand washing and drying with child.
- Support child’s efforts in toileting, brushing teeth, bathing, and washing hands.
- Show child how to clean up after self, acknowledging when he/she does clean up.
- Talk with child about health rules (cover mouth when coughing, throw away soiled tissues in wastebasket).
- Model words to describe symptoms of illness (“I feel hot.” “My tummy hurts.”).
- Provide opportunities for child to participate daily in personal care (choose clothes to wear, use toothbrush, get dressed).
- Offer opportunities for child to be responsible for personal belongings (hanging up own jacket).
- Provide easy on/off clothing to allow child chance to practice personal care.
- Read with child and practice other calming routines at bedtime and naptime.
- Provide child-sized cups.
Goal 7: Children eat a variety of nutritious foods
- Begin to recognize and eat a variety of nutritious foods.
- Tell the difference between food and non-food items.
- Make personal food choices among several nutritious options.
- Try new foods when offered.
- Consume age-appropriate amounts of nutritious beverages (water, milk, occasional 100% juice).
- Scoop foods onto their plates with assistance.
- Begin to help prepare simple food with assistance (tear lettuce, cut up banana with dull knife.
- Establish regular meal and snack times in daily schedule.
- Prepare and provides a variety of nutritious snacks and meals from child’s own cultural background and other cultures.
- Model eating nutritious foods yourself (avoid drinking soda pop and eating junk food in front of children).
- Talk with child about how food and water help us to be healthy.
- When adding a food to the menu that is new to child, include other foods that are child’s favorites.
- Encourage child to drink plenty of water throughout the day.
- If child has food allergies, talk with him/her about healthful food choices that fit his/her needs.
- Provide opportunities for the child to serve themselves at mealtimes.
- Avoid using sweets as a reward or incentive (to put on a coat or finish their dinner).
- Allow children time to feed themselves (including using utensils and cups).
- Provide finger foods for children to feel successful at mealtimes.
Goal 8: Children are kept safe and learn safety rules
- Begin to recognize and avoid dangers (hot stoves, sharp knives) but cannot be relied upon to keep safe.
- Know to hold caregiver’s hand when walking in public places.
- Begin to identify safe adults.
- Be mostly willing to wear appropriate clothing for current conditions.
- Tell an adult when someone hurts him/her or makes him/her feel bad.
- Teach (repeatedly) that guns, lighters, and matches are not toys; for adults only.
- Use poison symbols in classroom and at home and teach children what they mean.
- Teach the difference between good touch / bad touch (any touch in area of swimming suit).
- Respect child’s decision to hug or kiss friends and relatives.
- Closely watch children learning to use scissors and tools.
- Teach child to tell an adult if he/she is afraid, has been hurt by an adult or another child, or sees something that is not safe.
- Introduce child to safety personnel and places (firefighters, fire stations, health clinics, health aides, Village Public Safety Officers (VPSOs), doctors and hospitals.
- Provide individual or sanitized helmets for all people riding bikes, scooters, snow machines, 4-wheelers, sledding, etc.
- Compliment the child when he/she behaves safely.
- Ensure child begins swimming lessons and how to be safe around water.