Goal 48: Children demonstrate understanding of social communication
- Study caregiver’s face.
- Show preference for familiar human voices to other sounds (animal sounds).
- Pay attention to what the speaker is looking at or pointing to.
- Vocalize or gesture in response to another person’s voice or gesture.
- Quiet/calm body movement at the sound of a recognized caregiver’s voice.
- Shift listening attention to a variety of sounds (caregiver’s singing/words/making environmental sounds to attract baby).
- Use eyes and move head to look for caregiver’s voice.
- Begin to anticipate caregiver’s actions in routine game (shows excitement when hearing “peek a boo”).
- Start to respond to their name when called by looking and smiling at caregiver.
- Make sounds/facial expressions/gestures to communicate feelings such as giggles, laughs, squeals, screech to show excitement, joy, discomfort.
- Change volume and pitch to convey meaning.
- Play with speech sounds in crib or during quiet time.
- Imitate words and/or beginning sign (simple greetings, sign for more) and gestures. Start to wave “bye” with support.
- Participate in turn-taking during one-on-one communication by making sounds or using words.
- Play and interact face to face to encourage infant to watch your face, body language and facial expressions to model and encourage turn taking (wait for the child to make a sound or movement or expression).
- Introduce simple baby games (Peek-a-boo, Pat-a-cake).
- Carry the child in a snuggly or other device to keep them close as much as possible as you talk and interact during routine activities (diapering, cooking, household chores). Avoid using a car seat, stroller or other carrier when possible.
- Respond to the child’s cues regarding needs for comfort, diapering, food, etc.
- Interact with child during play with toys, books, and pictures familiar to the child.
- Tell child stories, sing songs, and repeat rhymes from the child’s own culture and language while cradling baby in arms.
- Use talking throughout the day during daily routines and play (“Now I’m changing your diaper”).
- Introduce simple sign language along with spoken word.
- Interpret and give meaning to what child says (“You are saying ‘baba.’ Do you want some water?”).
- Repeat child’s sounds playfully, using different types of voices.
- “Tune in” and match facial expressions to the different ways child attempts to communicate with appropriate response (match feelings, verbal response, gesture).
- Assist child to use nonverbal ways to express self so he/she feels that attempts to communicate are valued (sign language, show, point).
- Engage in turn-taking play with the child, (simple games requiring turn taking such as rolling a ball back and forth and watching for child’s communication to request another turn).
- Provide daily opportunities to join baby on the floor for joyful and interactive play based on the baby’s interests and attention (play with crinkly paper together).
- Avoid screen time, other than video chatting with caregivers and relatives.
Goal 49: Children listen and understand communication (receptive language)
- Startle to loud and unexpected sounds.
- Alert to sounds and older infant will turn to locate source of a sound.
- Turn to look toward caregiver calling their name.
- Recognize songs by smiling, singing or joining in finger play or body movements.
- Follow early directions, such as “Give me the block” (caregiver may extend hand).
- Respond to voices by quieting or calming
- Respond differently to familiar and unfamiliar voices
- Look for sound source (hears a dog bark and looks for dog).
- Start to respond differently to firm voice vs. playful voice.
- Turn to look at familiar object when it is named.
- Imitate adult actions that go along with simple songs, rhymes and traditional songs (“Row, row, row your boat”).
- Follow single-step directions (“Please bring me the ball.”).
- Explain what daily routines are being done so words are linked with the actions as they occur (“I’m washing your face and hands”).
- Tell child what you think they’re saying with their gestures or expressions.
- Engage in conversations with child about things seen or experienced in familiar environments.
- Repeat questions and instructions as needed.
- Play early listening games, such as peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake or “Where is daddy?”.
- Explore and play with sound makers and musical instruments.
- Use singing to help baby calm, ready for bed, routines (diapering song).
- Share books together, following baby’s lead to flip through pages and simplifying story as needed.
- Keep language and sounds simple, watching for baby’s interest and understanding.
Goal 50: Children communicate their thoughts, feelings and ideas with others (expressive language)
- Cry when hungry or uncomfortable.
- Have cries varying in pitch, length, and volume to indicate different needs (hunger, pain, discomfort).
- Join in singing songs using rhythm of actual words.
- Play with speech sounds in crib or during quiet time.
- Make facial expressions, gestures and changes tones.
- Coo, make vowel sounds and progress to babbling.
- Babble using two-lip sounds such as: “p,” “b,” and, “m” followed by a vowel sound (“Ba ba ba da da da...”).
- Begin to combine sounds together consistently to indicate a few specific objects or people (e.g. “baba” for bottle).
- Combine vocalizations and gestures (“uh” and pat mother’s chest to request nursing).
- Enjoy playing back-and-forth games with caregiver using sounds.
- Recognize and appreciate child’s efforts to use new words or emergent sign language.
- Assume child has something important to say and listen carefully.
- Expand upon child’s attempts to use words (child says “Baba,” you say, “yes, here is the bottle” or “your bottle is empty” and combine words with signs).
- Respond to child’s use of gestures and “signs” by using the word (“I see you want ‘more’”).
- Expose child to language by talking, singing and reading with him/her.
- Try to understand the meaning of what the child is trying to say before responding.
- Imitate child’s speech sounds and see if it can be turned into a back-and-forth game.
- Work with all child’s caregivers to identify and use words, signs, gestures familiar to child (when she says “baba,” she means her
Goal 51: Children demonstrate appreciation and enjoyment of reading
- Show beginning sound awareness by reacting differently to different sounds.
- Imitate vocalizations and sounds.
- Recite last word of familiar rhymes, with assistance.
- Imitate sounds when looking at words in a book.
- Pay attention to and/or pat pictures in book with help of caregiver.
- Explore physical features of books by touching, flipping through board book pages, patting or putting in the mouth, (chews on cloth books).
- Use interactive books, with assistance (opens flaps on flap books, feels soft fur).
- Identify familiar people and objects in photographs (pats picture when asked “Where is Grandma?”).
- Enjoy books about daily routines (eating, toileting).
- Hand or offer book to an adult to read.
- Show recognition of certain preferred or favorite books.
- Focus attention for short periods of time when looking at books.
- Show pleasure when read to (smiles, vocalizes).
- Make a photobook of family, toys, pets, cultural background, home language and places. Look at the book together and pat pictures as you talk about what you see together.
- Provide books at baby’s level on floor or low shelves so baby can access and look at books.
- Combine gestures and baby signs while reading books together (Make sign for “fish” when looking at pictures of salmon and fishing).
- Create family routines with reading time. For example, after meals or before bed is “book time.”
- Engage in familiar sound play with child (tap drums at different tempos).
- Practice and play with words with child.
- Read books with rhymes, songs, and repetitive language with child.
- Read with child one-on-one, so the child observes and handles books often.
- Engage child in playing with board books, cloth and plastic books, that can be manipulated and explored with assistance.
- Read wordless or simple books, talking about what they see.
- Point to pictures while reading and encourage child to do so as well.
- Explore pictures and print that might be of interest to child (labels, boxes, mail, magazines, newspapers).
- Read with child daily in a relaxed and fun manner (sitting on your lap or together on the floor). Re-read favorite stories.
- Let child observe you reading daily.
- Place interesting books where children can reach them.
- Provide a variety of multicultural books from home culture and other cultures.
- Use books with photographs or drawings of animals, people, and single brightly-colored objects to draw child’s attention and interest.
- Use books that are easy to hold and can withstand lots of wear and tear.
Goal 52: Children use writing for a variety of purposes
- Enjoy exploring a variety of sensations and materials with their hands (for example, using a finger to make a mark in soft food item or smearing food on tray).
- Develop a grasp to pick up and drop toys, start to transfer toys and objects from one hand to other (early developmental precursors to grasping writing tools).
- Experiment with grasp when using different writing tools (crayon, paint brush, marker).
- Focus on marks on paper.
- Make marks on paper with a variety of writing tools (finger paints, paintbrush) without regard to location.
- Scribble on paper spontaneously.
- Provide writing and drawing tools (crayons, chalk, finger paint) that can be used both indoors and outdoors.
- Provide opportunities to “write.”
- Write child’s name saying each letter out loud.
- Display pictures and posters with word labels in home language.
- Engage child in writing, scribbling, and drawing; acknowledge their work and comments without trying to interpret.
- Provide sensory experiences during play and outings by allowing child to explore with hands and feet while in indoor and outdoor environments.